What is Blood Pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of blood against your artery walls as it circulates through your body. Your blood pressure is recorded as two figures. For example, 120/80 mm Hg.

  • The upper side (120) is the systolic pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
  • The lower side (80) is the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between each heartbeat.

Range of Blood Pressure : Normal & Hypertension

For adults the values are given in the chart below.

(Some patients may have only systolic or Only Diastolic Hypertension. Discuss your child’s values with your doctor.)

Grade Systolic pressure (mm Hg) Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)
Normal blood pressure Less than 120 Less than 80
Pre-hypertension 120-139 80-89
Stage 1 Hypertension 140-159 90-99
Stage 2 Hypertension 160 & above 100 & above

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

Risk factors which increase the blood pressure are:

  • Salty diet, obesity, older age, hereditary & certain medicines.
  • Diabetes, High cholesterol, Smoking & Alcohol.

Health Problems Associated With High Blood Pressure is given below.

Organ involved Effects of High blood pressure
Arteries (Atherosclerosis) A disease of the arteries where there is deposition of plaque, or fatty material, on the inside walls of the blood vessels.
Heart Disease Can lead to conditions interfering with adequate functioning of heart like heart failure, Ischemic heart disease, etc.
Kidney Disease Can damage the blood vessels and filters in the kidneys, so that the kidneys cannot excrete properly.
Brain (stroke) Can lead to blockages and/or clots in blood vessels of brain , or by weakening the blood vessel wall and causing it to rupture leading to Brain Hemorrhage.
Eye Disease Can damage the very small blood vessels in the retina of the eye leading to visual complaints.